Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash and cash equivalents are stated at fair value or at cost, which approximates fair value, and include investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of acquisition. At December 31, 2016, and 2015 cash and cash equivalents consisted of cash, money market funds and time deposits.
At December 31, 2016 and 2015, short-term investments consisted of investments held as part of the Company's deferred compensation plan expected to be distributed in the next twelve months. Investments held as part of the Company's deferred compensation plan are classified as trading securities and are recorded at fair value with any unrealized gains and losses reported in operating income. Realized gains or losses are determined based on the specific identification method.
At December 31, 2016 and 2015, long-term investments included in other non-current assets consisted of mutual fund shares held to offset liabilities to participants in the Company's deferred compensation plan. The investments are classified as long-term because the related deferred compensation liabilities are not expected to be paid within the next year. These investments are classified as trading securities and are recorded at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of operating income.
Accounts receivable have been reduced by an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company makes ongoing estimates of the collectability of accounts receivable and maintains an allowance for estimated losses resulting from the inability of the Company's customers to make required payments.
Inventories consist primarily of finished goods and are carried at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out method. The Company periodically reviews its inventories for excess, close-out or slow moving items and makes provisions as necessary to properly reflect inventory value.
Property, plant, and equipment:
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The principal estimated useful lives are: land improvements, 15 years; buildings and building improvements, 15-30 years; furniture and fixtures, 3-10 years; and machinery, software and equipment, 3-10 years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the improvement, which is most commonly 7 years, or the remaining term of the underlying lease.
Improvements to property, plant and equipment that substantially extend the useful life of the asset are capitalized. Repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Internal and external costs directly related to the development of internal-use software during the application development stage, including costs incurred for third party contractors and employee compensation, are capitalized and depreciated over a 3-10 year estimated useful life.
Impairment of long-lived assets:
Long-lived assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives and are measured for impairment only when events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may be impaired. In these cases, the Company estimates the future undiscounted cash flows to be derived from the asset or asset group to determine whether a potential impairment exists. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset, the Company recognizes an impairment loss, measured as the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value of the asset. Impairment charges for long-lived assets are included in selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expense and were $4,310,000, $4,171,000 and $73,000 for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Charges during the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 were recorded in the United States and LAAP regions for certain underperforming retail stores. Charges during the year ended December 31, 2014 were recorded in the United States region for certain underperforming retail stores.
Intangible assets and goodwill:
Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and goodwill are not amortized but are periodically evaluated for impairment. Intangible assets that are determined to have finite lives are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives and are measured for impairment only when events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may be impaired.
Impairment of intangible assets and goodwill:
The Company reviews and tests its intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and goodwill for impairment in the fourth quarter of each year and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may be impaired. The Company's intangible assets with indefinite lives consist of trademarks and trade names. Substantially all of the Company's goodwill is recorded in the United States segment and impairment testing for goodwill is performed at the reporting unit level. In the impairment test for goodwill, the two-step process first compares the estimated fair value of the reporting unit with the carrying amount of that reporting unit. The Company estimates the fair value of its reporting units using a combination of discounted cash flow analysis, comparisons with the market values of similar publicly traded companies and other operating performance based valuation methods, as necessary. If step one indicates impairment, step two compares the estimated fair value of the reporting unit to the estimated fair value of all reporting unit assets and liabilities, except goodwill, to determine the implied fair value of goodwill. The Company calculates impairment as the excess of carrying amount of goodwill over the implied fair value of goodwill. In the impairment tests for trademarks and trade names, the Company compares the estimated fair value of each asset to its carrying amount. The fair values of trademarks and trade names are generally estimated using a relief from royalty method under the income approach. If the carrying amount of a trademark or trade name exceeds its estimated fair value, the Company calculates impairment as the excess of carrying amount over the estimate of fair value.
If events or circumstances indicate the carrying value of intangible assets with finite lives may be impaired, the Company estimates the future undiscounted cash flows to be derived from the asset or asset group to determine whether a potential impairment exists. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset the Company recognizes an impairment loss, measured as the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value of the asset. Our 2016 impairment tests of goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives indicated that all reporting units and intangible assets with indefinite lives exceeded their respective carrying values by more than 20%, with the exception of goodwill for the Mountain Hardwear reporting unit. In the first step of the Mountain Hardwear goodwill impairment analysis, the estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeded its carrying value by approximately 13%, and as such the reporting unit’s goodwill balance of $12.2 million was not impaired.
Impairment charges, if any, are classified as a component of SG&A expense. The impairment tests and related fair value estimates are based on a number of factors, including assumptions and estimates for projected sales, income, cash flows, discount rates, remaining useful lives, and other operating performance measures. Changes in estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results. These assumptions and estimates may change in the future due to changes in economic conditions, changes in the Company's ability to meet sales and profitability objectives or changes in the Company's business operations or strategic direction.
Income taxes are provided on financial statement earnings for financial reporting purposes. Income taxes are based on amounts of taxes payable or refundable in the current year and on expected future tax consequences of events that are recognized in the financial statements in different periods than they are recognized in tax returns. As a result of timing of recognition and measurement differences between financial accounting standards and income tax laws, temporary differences arise between amounts of pre-tax financial statement income and taxable income and between reported amounts of assets and liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and their respective tax bases. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets reflect estimated future tax effects attributable to these temporary differences and to net operating loss and net capital loss carryforwards, based on tax rates expected to be in effect for years in which the differences are expected to be settled or realized. Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent on future taxable income in specific jurisdictions. Valuation allowances are used to reduce deferred tax assets to amounts considered likely to be realized. U.S. deferred income taxes are not provided on undistributed income of foreign subsidiaries, where such earnings are considered to be indefinitely invested, or to the extent such recognition would result in a deferred tax asset.
Accrued income taxes in the Consolidated Balance Sheets include unrecognized income tax benefits relating to uncertain tax positions, including related interest and penalties, appropriately classified as current or noncurrent. The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the relevant taxing authority based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant tax authority. In making this determination, the Company assumes that the taxing authority will examine the position and that it will have full knowledge of all relevant information. The provision for income taxes also includes estimates of interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions.
The effective portion of changes in fair values of outstanding cash flow hedges is recorded in other comprehensive income until earnings are affected by the hedged transaction, and any ineffective portion is included in current income. In most cases amounts recorded in other comprehensive income will be released to earnings after maturity of the related derivative. The Consolidated Statements of Operations classification of effective hedge results is the same as that of the underlying exposure. Results of hedges of product costs are recorded in cost of sales when the underlying hedged transactions affect earnings. Results of hedges of revenue are recorded in net sales when the underlying hedged transactions affect earnings. Unrealized derivative gains and losses, which are recorded in assets and liabilities, respectively, are non-cash items and therefore are taken into account in the preparation of the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows based on their respective balance sheet classifications. See Note 19 for more information on derivatives and risk management.
Foreign currency translation:
The assets and liabilities of the Company's foreign subsidiaries have been translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect at period end, and the net sales and expenses have been translated into U.S. dollars using average exchange rates in effect during the period. The foreign currency translation adjustments are included as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income in shareholders' equity and are not currently adjusted for income taxes when they relate to indefinite net investments in non-U.S. operations.
The Company records wholesale, distributor, e-commerce and licensed product revenues when title passes and the risks and rewards of ownership have passed to the customer. Title generally passes upon shipment to, or upon receipt by, the customer depending on the terms of sale with the customer. Retail store revenues are recorded at the time of sale. Revenue is recorded net of sales taxes, value added taxes or similar taxes which are collected on behalf of local taxing authorities.
Where title passes upon receipt by the customer, predominantly in the Company's European wholesale business, Japan and in certain of our e-commerce operations, precise information regarding the date of receipt by the customer is not readily available. In these cases, the Company estimates the date of receipt by the customer based on historical and expected delivery times by geographic location. The Company periodically tests the accuracy of these estimates based on actual transactions. Delivery times vary by geographic location, generally from one to seven days. To date, the Company has found these estimates to be materially accurate.
At the time of revenue recognition, the Company also provides for estimated sales returns and miscellaneous claims from customers as reductions to revenues. The estimates are based on historical rates of product returns and claims as well as events and circumstances that indicate changes to historical rates of returns and claims. However, actual returns and claims in any future period are inherently uncertain and thus may differ from the estimates. If actual or expected future returns and claims are significantly greater or lower than the reserves that have been established, the Company would record a reduction or increase to net revenues in the period in which it made such determination.
Cost of sales:
The expenses that are included in cost of sales include all direct product costs related to shipping, duties and importation. Specific provisions for excess, close-out or slow moving inventory are also included in cost of sales. In addition, some of the Company's products carry limited warranty provisions for defects in quality and workmanship. A warranty reserve is established at the time of sale to cover estimated costs based on the Company's history of warranty repairs and replacements and is recorded in cost of sales.
Selling, general and administrative expense:
SG&A expense consists of personnel-related costs, advertising, depreciation, occupancy, and other selling and general operating expenses related to the Company's business functions, including planning, receiving finished goods, warehousing, distribution, retail operations and information technology.
Shipping and handling costs:
Shipping and handling fees billed to customers and consumers are recorded as revenue. The direct costs associated with shipping goods to customers and consumers are recorded as cost of sales. Inventory planning, receiving, storing and handling costs are recorded as a component of SG&A expenses and were $65,757,000, $61,338,000 and $59,561,000 for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Stock-based compensation cost is estimated at the grant date based on the award's fair value and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period using the straight-line attribution method. The Company estimates stock-based compensation for stock options granted using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which requires various subjective assumptions, including volatility and expected option life. Further, the Company estimates forfeitures for stock-based awards granted which are not expected to vest. For restricted stock unit awards subject to performance conditions, the amount of compensation expense recorded in a given period reflects the Company's assessment of the probability of achieving its performance targets. If any of these inputs or assumptions changes significantly, stock-based compensation expense may differ materially in the future from that recorded in the current period. Assumptions are evaluated and revised as necessary to reflect changes in market conditions and the Company's experience. Estimates of fair value are not intended to predict actual future events or the value ultimately realized by people who receive equity awards. The fair value of service-based and performance-based restricted stock units is discounted by the present value of the estimated future stream of dividends over the vesting period using the Black-Scholes model.
Advertising costs are expensed in the period incurred and are included in SG&A expenses. Total advertising expense, including cooperative advertising costs, was $118,663,000, $120,764,000 and $110,109,000 for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Through cooperative advertising programs, the Company reimburses its wholesale customers for some of their costs of advertising the Company's products based on various criteria, including the value of purchases from the Company and various advertising specifications. Cooperative advertising costs are included in expenses because the Company receives an identifiable benefit in exchange for the cost, the advertising may be obtained from a party other than the customer, and the fair value of the advertising benefit can be reasonably estimated. Cooperative advertising costs were $8,699,000, $10,008,000 and $8,056,000 for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Recent accounting pronouncements:
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers Topic 606, outlining a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers that supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance. The updated guidance requires an entity to recognize revenue when it transfers control of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the new standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The Company expects to adopt the standard on January 1, 2018. The new standard is required to be applied retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying it recognized at the date of initial application. The Company plans to conclude upon its transition method during the first half of 2017, and is in the process of evaluating the new standard against its existing accounting policies, including principal and agent considerations, timing of revenue recognition, and balance sheet classifications, to determine the effect the guidance will have on the Consolidated Financial Statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, an update to their accounting guidance related to the recognition and measurement of certain financial instruments. This new standard requires equity investments that are not accounted for under the equity method of accounting to be measured at fair value with changes recognized in net income and also updates certain presentation and disclosure requirements. This standard is effective beginning in the first quarter of 2018 with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2016-01 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Effective January 1, 2016, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (Topic 718). See Changes affecting comparability under Note 1.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), in order to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for most leases previously classified as operating leases. The new standard will become effective beginning with the first quarter of 2019 using a modified retrospective approach and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance, and expects the adoption will result in a material increase in the assets and liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets and will likely have an insignificant impact on our consolidated statements of operations.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The pronouncement changes the impairment model for most financial assets, and will require the use of an "expected loss" model for instruments measured at amortized cost. Under this model, entities will be required to estimate the lifetime expected credit loss on such instruments and record an allowance to offset the amortized cost basis of the financial asset, resulting in a net presentation of the amount expected to be collected on the financial asset. This standard is effective beginning in the first quarter of 2020. The adoption of ASU 2016-13 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfer of Assets Other than Inventory, which requires the recognition of the income tax effects of an intra-entity transfer of an asset, other than inventory, when the transfer occurs, eliminating an exception under current GAAP in which the tax effects of intra-entity asset transfers are deferred until the transferred asset is sold to a third party or otherwise recovered through use. Income tax effects of intra-entity transfers of inventory will continue to be deferred until the inventory has been sold to a third party. The Company expects to adopt this new guidance during the first quarter of 2018, and anticipates it will result in increased volatility in our effective income tax rate. The Company plans to apply the required modified retrospective approach with a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings of previously deferred charges.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which simplifies the accounting for goodwill impairments by eliminating step two from the goodwill impairment test. Under this new guidance, if the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment charge shall be recognized in an amount equal to that excess, limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The new standard will become effective during the first quarter of 2019, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impacts and expect the adoption of ASU 2017-04 to affect the amount and timing of future goodwill impairment charges, if any.
No definition available.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef