Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policy)
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
|Property, Plant and Equipment [Line Items]
|Nature of the Business
Nature of the Business
Columbia Sportswear Company is a global leader in the design, sourcing, marketing, and distribution of outdoor, active and everyday lifestyle apparel, footwear, accessories, and equipment products.
|Principles of Consolidation
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Columbia Sportswear Company, its wholly owned subsidiaries and entities in which it maintained a controlling financial interest (the "Company"). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
|Estimates and Assumptions
Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions. Some of the more significant estimates relate to revenue recognition, allowance for uncollectible accounts receivable, excess, close-out and slow moving inventory, product warranty, impairment of long-lived assets, intangible assets and goodwill, income taxes, and stock-based compensation.
|Cash and Cash Equivalents
|Cash and cash equivalentsCash and cash equivalents are stated at fair value or at cost, which approximates fair value, and include investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of acquisition. At December 31, 2019, Cash and cash equivalents consisted of cash, money market funds, United States government treasury bills, and commercial paper.
At December 31, 2019, Short-term investments consisted of mutual fund share investments held as part of the Company's deferred compensation plan expected to be distributed in the next twelve months. At December 31, 2018, Short-term investments consisted of United States government treasury bills, and mutual fund share investments held as part of the Company's deferred compensation plan expected to be distributed in the next twelve months. The United States government treasury bills are classified as available-for-sale securities and are recorded at fair value with any unrealized gains and losses reported, net of tax, in Other comprehensive income (loss). Investments held as part of the Company's deferred compensation plan are classified as trading securities and are recorded at fair value with any unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of operating income. Realized gains or losses are determined based on the specific identification method.At December 31, 2019 and 2018, long-term investments included in Other non-current assets consisted of money market and mutual fund shares held to offset liabilities to participants in the Company's deferred compensation plan. The investments are classified as long-term because the related deferred compensation liabilities are not expected to be paid within the next year. These investments are classified as trading securities and are recorded at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of operating income.
|Accounts receivableAccounts receivable have been reduced by an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company makes ongoing estimates of the collectability of accounts receivable and maintains an allowance for estimated losses resulting from the inability of the Company's customers to make required payments.
|InventoriesInventories consist primarily of finished goods and are carried at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out method. The Company periodically reviews its inventories for excess, close-out or slow moving items and makes provisions as necessary to properly reflect inventory value.
|Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The principal estimated useful lives are: land improvements, 15 years; buildings and building improvements, 15-30 years; furniture and fixtures, 3-10 years; and machinery, software and equipment, 3-10 years.Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the lesser of the estimated useful life of the improvement, which is most commonly 7 years, or the remaining term of the underlying lease.Improvements to property, plant and equipment that substantially extend the useful life of the asset are capitalized. Repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Internal and external costs directly related to the development of internal-use software during the application development stage, including costs incurred for third party contractors and employee compensation, are capitalized and depreciated over a 3-10 year estimated useful life.
|Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
|Impairment of long-lived assetsLong-lived assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives and are measured for impairment only when events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may be impaired. In these cases, the Company estimates the future undiscounted cash flows to be derived from the asset or asset group to determine whether a potential impairment exists. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset, the Company recognizes an impairment loss, measured as the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value of the asset.
|Intangible Assets and Goodwill
|Intangible assets and goodwillIntangible assets with indefinite useful lives and goodwill are not amortized but are periodically evaluated for impairment. Intangible assets that are determined to have finite lives are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives and are measured for impairment only when events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may be impaired. Intangible assets with finite lives include patents, purchased technology and customer relationships and have estimated useful lives which range from approximately 3 to 10 years.
|Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Impairment of intangible assets and goodwill
The Company reviews and tests its intangible assets with indefinite useful lives and goodwill for impairment in the fourth quarter of each year and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may be impaired. The Company's intangible assets with indefinite lives consist of trademarks and trade names. Substantially all of the Company's goodwill is recorded in the United States segment and impairment testing for goodwill is performed at the reporting unit level. In the impairment test for goodwill, the two-step process first compares the estimated fair value of the reporting unit with the carrying amount of that reporting unit. The Company estimates the fair value of its reporting units using a combination of discounted cash flow analysis, comparisons with the market values of similar publicly traded companies and other operating performance based valuation methods, as necessary. If step one indicates impairment, step two compares the estimated fair value of the reporting unit to the estimated fair value of all reporting unit assets and liabilities, except goodwill, to determine the implied fair value of goodwill. The Company calculates impairment as the excess of carrying amount of goodwill over the implied fair value of goodwill.
If events or circumstances indicate the carrying value of intangible assets with finite lives may be impaired, the Company estimates the future undiscounted cash flows to be derived from the asset or asset group to determine whether a potential impairment exists. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset the Company recognizes an impairment loss, measured as the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value of the asset.Impairment charges, if any, are classified as a component of SG&A expense. The impairment tests and related fair value estimates are based on a number of factors, including assumptions and estimates for projected sales, income, cash flows, discount rates, remaining useful lives, and other operating performance measures. Changes in estimates or the application of alternative assumptions could produce significantly different results. These assumptions and estimates may change in the future due to changes in economic conditions, changes in the Company's ability to meet sales and profitability objectives or changes in the Company's business operations or strategic direction.
Income taxes are provided on financial statement earnings for financial reporting purposes. Income taxes are based on amounts of taxes payable or refundable in the current year and on expected future tax consequences of events that are recognized in the financial statements in different periods than they are recognized in tax returns. As a result of timing of recognition and measurement differences between financial accounting standards and income tax laws, temporary differences arise between amounts of pre-tax financial statement income and taxable income and between reported amounts of assets and liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and their respective tax bases. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities reported in the Consolidated Balance Sheets reflect estimated future tax effects attributable to these temporary differences and to net operating loss and net capital loss carryforwards, based on tax rates expected to be in effect for years in which the differences are expected to be settled or realized. Realization of deferred tax assets is dependent on future taxable income in specific jurisdictions. Valuation allowances are used to reduce deferred tax assets to amounts considered likely to be realized.
Accrued income taxes in the Consolidated Balance Sheets include unrecognized income tax benefits relating to uncertain tax positions, including related interest and penalties, appropriately classified as current or noncurrent. The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the relevant taxing authority based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant tax authority. In making this determination, the Company assumes that the taxing authority will examine the position and that it will have full knowledge of all relevant information. The provision for income taxes also includes estimates of interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions.
The effective portion of changes in fair values of outstanding cash flow hedges is recorded in other comprehensive income until earnings are affected by the hedged transaction, and any ineffective portion is included in current income. In most cases, amounts recorded in other comprehensive income will be released to earnings after maturity of the related derivative. The Consolidated Statements of Operations classification of effective hedge results is the same as that of the underlying exposure. Results of hedges of product costs are recorded in Cost of sales when the underlying hedged transactions affect earnings. Results of hedges of revenue are recorded in Net sales when the underlying hedged transactions affect earnings. Unrealized derivative gains and losses, which are recorded in assets and liabilities, respectively, are non-cash items and therefore are taken into account in the preparation of the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows based on their respective balance sheet classifications. Refer to Note 19 for more information on derivatives and risk management.
|Foreign Currency Translation
Foreign currency translation
The assets and liabilities of the Company's foreign subsidiaries have been translated into United States dollars using the exchange rates in effect at period end, and the sales and expenses have been translated into United States dollars using average exchange rates in effect during the period. The foreign currency translation adjustments are included as a separate component of Accumulated other comprehensive loss in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Revenues are recognized when the Company's performance obligations are satisfied as evidenced by transfer of control of promised goods to customers or consumers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for those goods or services. Within the Company's wholesale channel, control generally transfers to the customer upon shipment to, or upon receipt by, the customer depending on the terms of sale with the customer. Within the Company's direct-to-consumer ("DTC") channel, control generally transfers to the consumer at the time of sale within retail stores and concession-based arrangements and upon shipment to the consumer with respect to e-commerce transactions.
The amount of consideration the Company expects to be entitled to receive and recognize as Net sales across both wholesale and DTC channels varies with changes in sales returns and other accommodations and incentives offered to customers and consumers. When the Company gives customers the right to return products or provide other accommodations such as chargebacks and markdowns, the Company estimates the expected sales returns and miscellaneous claims and records a sales reserve to reduce Net sales. These estimates are based on historical rates of product returns and claims, as well as events and circumstances that indicate changes to such historical rates. However, actual returns and claims in any future period are inherently uncertain and thus may differ from the estimates. As a result, the Company adjusts estimates of revenue at the earlier of when the most likely amount of consideration the Company expects to receive changes or when the amount of consideration becomes fixed. If actual or expected future returns and claims are significantly greater or lower than the sales reserves established, the Company records an adjustment to Net sales in the period in which it made such determination.
Licensing income, which is presented separately as Net licensing income on the Consolidated Statements of Operations and represents less than 1% of total revenue, is recognized over time based on the greater of contractual minimum royalty guarantees and actual, or estimated, sales of licensed products by the Company's licensees.
The Company expenses sales commissions when incurred, which is generally at the time of sale, because the amortization period would have been one year or less. These costs are recorded within SG&A expenses.
The Company treats shipping and handling activities as fulfillment costs, and as such recognize the costs for these activities at the time related revenue is recognized. The majority of these costs are recorded as SG&A expenses, and the direct costs associated with shipping goods to customers and consumers are recorded as Costs of sales. Shipping and handling fees billed to customers are recorded as Net sales.
Revenue recognized from contracts with customers is recorded net of sales taxes, value added taxes, or similar taxes that are collected on behalf of local taxing authorities.
|Cost of Sales
Cost of sales
The expenses that are included in Cost of sales include all direct product costs related to shipping, duties and importation. Specific provisions for excess, close-out or slow moving inventory are also included in cost of sales. In addition, some of the Company's products carry life-time or limited warranty provisions for defects in quality and workmanship. A warranty reserve is established at thetime of sale to cover estimated costs based on the Company's history of warranty repairs and replacements and is recorded in Cost of sales.
|Selling, General and Administrative Expense
Selling, general and administrative expense
SG&A expense consists of personnel-related costs, advertising, depreciation, occupancy, and other selling and general operating expenses related to the Company's business functions, including planning, receiving finished goods, warehousing, distribution, retail operations and information technology.
|Revenue from Contract with Customer
Shipping and handling costs
Shipping and handling fees billed to customers and consumers are recorded as Net sales. Inventory planning, receiving, storage and handling costs are recorded as a component of SG&A expenses and were $89.2 million, $82.7 million and $73.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
|Stock-based compensationStock-based compensation cost is estimated at the grant date based on the award's fair value and is recorded as expense when recognized. For stock options and service-based restricted units, stock-based compensation cost is recognized over the expected requisite service period using the straight-line attribution method. For performance-based restricted stock units, stock-based compensation cost is recognized based on the Company's assessment of the probability of achieving performance targets in the reporting period. The Company estimates forfeitures for stock-based awards granted, but which are not expected to vest.
Advertising costs, including marketing and demand creation spending, are expensed in the period incurred and are included in SG&A expenses. Total advertising expense, including cooperative advertising costs, were $166.4 million, $150.4 million and $121.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Cooperative advertising costs are expensed when the related revenues are recognized and included in SG&A expenses when the Company receives an identifiable benefit in exchange for the cost, the advertising may be obtained from a party other than the customer, and the fair value of the advertising benefit can be reasonably estimated.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements
|Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under the ASU, most of the guidance on such payments to nonemployees would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. The adoption of this provision did not have a material effect on the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-02, Leases ("ASC 842"), which increased transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing right-of-use ("ROU") assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for most leases previously classified as operating leases. The updated guidance and subsequent clarifications require disclosures to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases.
The Company adopted this standard utilizing the modified retrospective approach. The comparative prior period information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods. The Company has elected to adopt the package of transition practical expedients and, therefore, has not reassessed (1) whether existing or expired contracts contain a lease, (2) lease classification for existing or expired leases or (3) the accounting for initial direct costs that were previously capitalized. The Company did not elect the practical expedient to use hindsight for leases existing at adoption date.
The adoption of ASC 842 resulted in the recognition of ROU assets of $352.7 million, with corresponding lease liabilities of $387.1 million. As a result of adopting the standard, $34.4 million of pre-existing liabilities for deferred rent and various lease incentives were reclassified as a component of the ROU assets. At adoption, the measurement of the lease liabilities utilized the remaining minimum rental payments as defined under the previous accounting standard and the incremental borrowing rate as of January 1, 2019.
The adoption of ASC 842 did not materially impact the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Also, the adoption of ASC 842 had no material impact on operating, investing or financing cash flows in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. See Note 10 for additional disclosure regarding the adoption of the new standard.
The following table presents the effect of the adoption of ASC 842 on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets:
Effective January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40) issued by the FASB in August 2018, which clarifies certain aspects of accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement ("CCA") that is a service contract. Under the ASU, an entity would expense costs incurred in the preliminary-project and post-implementation-operation stages. The entity would also capitalize certain costs incurred during the application-development stage, as well as certain costs related to enhancements. The ASU does not change the accounting for the service component of a CCA. The Company adopted the standard using the prospective method and anticipates an increase in cloud-specific implementation assets as specific cloud initiatives are developed at the Company. These assets will amortize over their assessed useful lives or the term of the underlying cloud computing hosting contract, whichever is shorter.
Effective January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment issued by the FASB in January 2017, which simplifies the accounting for goodwill impairments by eliminating step two from the goodwill impairment test. Under this guidance, if the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment charge shall be recognized in an amount equal to that excess, limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The impact of the new standard will depend on the specific facts and circumstances of future individual goodwill impairments, if any.
Effective January 1, 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments issued by the FASB in June 2016, as well as the clarifying amendments subsequently issued. The pronouncement changes the impairment model for most financial assets and will require the use of an "expected loss" model for instruments measured at amortized cost. Under this model, entities will be required to estimate the lifetime expected credit loss on such instruments and record an allowance to offset the amortized cost basis of the financial asset, resulting in a net presentation of the amount expected to be collected on the financial asset. Upon adoption of the standard, there was no immediate impact to the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows. On an ongoing basis, the Company will contemplate forward-looking economic conditions in recording lifetime expected credit losses for the Company’s financial assets measured at cost, such as the Company’s trade receivables and certain short-term investments.In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the accounting for income taxes. This standard is effective beginning in the first quarter of 2021 on a prospective basis, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this accounting standard will have on the Company's financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The Company leases, among other things, retail space, office space, warehouse facilities, storage space, vehicles, and equipment. Generally, the base lease terms are between and 10 years. Certain lease agreements contain scheduled rent escalation clauses and others include rental payments adjusted periodically depending on an index or rate. Certain retail space lease agreements provide for additional rents based on a percentage of annual sales in excess of stipulated minimums ("percentage rent"). Certain lease agreements require the Company to pay real estate taxes, insurance, common area maintenance, and other costs, collectively referred to as operating costs, in addition to base rent.
Certain lease agreements also contain lease incentives, such as tenant improvement allowances and rent holidays. Most leases include one or more options to renew, with renewal terms that can extend the lease term from one to 10 years or more. The exercise
of lease renewal options is generally at the Company's sole discretion. The Company's lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants.
The Company determines if an arrangement is or contains a lease at contract inception. The Company recognizes a ROU asset and a lease liability at the lease commencement date. The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the unpaid lease payments at the lease commencement date. Key estimates and judgments include how the Company determines (1) the discount rate it uses to discount the unpaid lease payments to present value, (2) the lease term and (3) lease payments.
ASC 842 requires a lessee to discount its unpaid lease payments using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, its incremental borrowing rate. Generally, the Company cannot determine the interest rate implicit in the lease because it does not have access to the lessor's estimated residual value or the amount of the lessor's deferred initial direct costs. Therefore, the Company generally uses its incremental borrowing rate as the discount rate for the lease. The Company's incremental borrowing rate for a lease is the rate of interest it would have to pay on a collateralized basis to borrow an amount equal to the lease payments under similar terms. Because the Company does not generally borrow on a collateralized basis, it uses quoted interest rates as an input to derive an appropriate incremental borrowing rate, adjusted for the lease term and the effect on that rate of designating specific collateral with a value equal to the unpaid lease payments for that lease. The Company also contemplates adjusting the discount rate for the amount of the lease payments.
The Company's lease contracts may include options to extend the lease following the initial term or terminate the lease prior to the end of the initial term. In most instances, at the commencement of the leases, the Company has determined that it is not reasonably certain to exercise either of these options; accordingly, these options are generally not considered in determining the initial lease term. At the renewal of an expiring lease, the Company reassesses options in the contract that it is reasonably certain to exercise in its measurement of lease term.
For lease agreements entered into or reassessed after the adoption of ASC 842, the Company has elected the practical expedient to account for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component. Therefore, for those leases, the lease payments used to measure the lease liability include all of the fixed consideration in the contract.
Variable lease payments associated with the Company's leases are recognized upon occurrence of the event, activity, or circumstance in the lease agreement on which those payments are assessed. Variable lease payments are presented in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Operations in the same line item as expense arising from fixed lease payments.Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet; the Company recognizes lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term.